Every large and powerful empire obtains enemies of every shape and form. For Egypt, their enemies consisted of one of two types: the first being the enemy that had resources that Egypt wanted, but were of little threat as invaders (such as the Mittani or Hatti), and the second being the empires that had little of value, but threatened the rule of Egypt (the Libyans and Sea Peoples).
Nubians were wanted because of the gold and other resources in their empire. They were the main threat which Egypt faced and were considered to be “vile” and “wretched” by Egyptian kings. Nubians were a main source of wealth and slave power, as military campaigns and trading expeditions were sent to Nubia at regular intervals in order to sustain a regular supply of prisoners, herds of cattle and exotic products from the south such as ivory, ostrich feathers and ebony. (Picture below = Nubian)
Libyans wre depicted by the Egyptians mostly as dark skinned and bearded, though occasionally with fair hair and blue eyes. Rule over Libyans, like that of Nubians, were signs of the king’s power in militay and political expeditions. During the New Kingdom reigns of Merneptah and Ramesses III, the Egyptians had to stave off major invasions from Libyans, but by the late New Kingdom these people eventually became an influential group within Egyptian society. In fact, by the 22nd Dynasty, they even gained temporary control of Egypt. (Picture below = Libyan)
During the Second Intermediate Period, Egypt was ruled by a dynasty of Asiatic kings known as the Hyksos (“rulers of foreign lands”). They came to Egypt with horses, chariots and copper weapons, which the Egyptians would later adapt for their own armies. By the beginning of the New Kingdom, the Hyksos were expelled from Egypt by King Ahmose, but this interlude of foreign rule in Egypt resulted in a new, aggressive policy of imperialism in Syria-Palestine.
My ponderings after the class reading discussion…
Although scribes were considered by many to be in a better position within society than a carpenter or potter, looking at the work through a 21st century lens, in todays world a scribe is no more than a stenographer, hardly an elite position in our status conscious society.
If in ancient Egypt “blue collar” work was looked down on by the elites, even with all the progressive thinking that has evoolved this is still a prevailing way of thinking. Although society’s elite need blue collar workers to build their homes, drive their cars, and clean their houses, they still look down on those who do this kind of work as “less than” and “less worthy”. ~TB
I was at a convention this past weekend and I was invited to join in on a game that my daughter kicked butt on last year. Little did I realize that my daughter was being taught the beauty of Gambling and Drinking in this game. Needless to say, I had fun while playing this game but I wasn’t thrilled that she learned these “much” needed skills for this game.
This inspired me for this weeks blog discussion. I was intrigued to find out about this history of Gaming during the times of Ancient Egypt.The dictionary definition of Gambling is to bet on an uncertain outcome for a sum of money. This is more often the case for men than for women. Also, this is the case for young men as well.
Did you know that gaming has been around for about 40,000 years? Thats’ right folks, Cavemen were gamblers and they often used pieces of sheep bone for dice. There was even mention of Ivory of dice in Ancient Egypt at about 1500 BC in Thebes. The plates that were found in the Great Pyramid of Khufu had inscriptions about dice. Pharaohs were often buried with “crooked” dice. Need loaded dice? Well thats right, Pharaohs had them.
In Ancient Assyria, gaming was abundant and a game board was found there that was similar to that of Backgammon. Ancient Egyptian game boards were similar in style and make. Also, these were used in Mesopotamia.
Gives you something to consider, the next time you sit down to play a round of cards.
Thermal shift the cause for no more pyramids?
In the article by the Huffington post, they cover Peter James’s theory of thermal shift in ancient Egypt and as a possible cause for as to why there would be no more pyramids built. Apparently, its discussed that the of increase of temperature in Egypt’s hot desserts caused the bricks to constrict and then crack. its still a theory but apperently its being considered by some.
Prosthetics in Ancient Egypt
In this article by NBC, they cover the advancement of science that ancient egyptians had in order to make prosthetic toes. Its interesting because they were carved out of wood and would be straped on to the foot. Also how embalmers took the time to recreate the body so that the person may have those missing limbs in the afterlife.
In discussing Ramses II this week, I decided to look a little more into his romance with Nefertari. She was the second of eight wives and provided Ramses II with his first male heir. She must have been very important to Ramses, for her tomb at the Valley of the Queens and temple are masterpieces of the ages. Check out this little movie which highlights the love affair of these two lovers!